You will keep forever, I’ll bury you like treasure

And so to bogs… Over the years, I’ve spent a fair amount of time leaping from tussock to tussock, squelching through wet  springy moss  and sometimes up to knees or thighs in glaur – all while passing through our mountain bogs.  When making my way to or from a hill top, I haven’t always observed what’s growing in the boggy bits – you know what it looks like and what it means (getting wet!) but you take it for granted. A visit with friend L to the area just above the Cashel Native Forest on Loch Lomondside a couple of weeks ago gave me a chance to look at some special features of a mountain bog habitat in light of my current John Muir Award efforts to learn more about the natural world – my plan can be seen here.  It was beautiful – the dry air vibrated with various buzzings, with the calls and flight of meadow pipits and the more distant ‘seeps’ of buzzards. We saw a ringlet butterfly and a dark green fritillary as well – thanks to iSpotters for supporting me towards clearer ID!  The plants were amazing in mid July, we saw bog pondweed, bog asphodel, what I used to call bog cotton  (Hare’s-Tail Cottongrass), bog myrtle, heath milkwort and common lousewort (in that order, below). IMG_2213 bog asphodel Narthecium ossifragum IMG_2219 IMG_2225 IMG_2212 IMG_2210 And we saw a lot of moss. bog- moss Sphagnum ssp IMG_2215 The moss is amazing stuff: some mosses can hold many times their own weight in water, they’re like sponges.  Dead sphagnum moss can accumulate slowly in an acidic environment where the organisms that normally break down dead plant material cannot live, and it forms layers of peat which can be several metres deep. Many interesting flora and fauna can be found on and above the peatlands, including plants which are carnivorous (they trap flies on sticky hairs of the leaves) to provide additional nutrition needed in the nutrient-poor peaty soils.  I’ve not got a photo of a sundew, but we took some of Common butterwort on Mull around midsummer: they’re not very good photos, I am afraid! DSC_0977 butterwort in flower Mull hill

Peat bogs currently** act as carbon sinks, so we really need to look after them; and by storing large amounts of water, bogs can slow down run-off and help limit flooding after heavy rain events:  both functions are about the cheery topic of climate change and increasing the resilience of natural systems in the face of this challenge. Reversing the effects of previous drainage projects, ending commercial peat extraction and limiting – and making good –  the extra erosion caused by overgrazing are all ways to safeguard this useful stuff.  See  here for news of collaboration to restore peatlands among SRUC, LLTNP and Luss Estates. Objects and indeed bodies can be really well preserved in peat: see here for Ötzi’s story, he is one of several famous European bog bodies.

“Our mountain bogs” is one of the 5 ‘wild challenges‘ in Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park’s Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP),  Wild Park 2020, where it sets out projects to conserve the biodiversity. BAPs had their origins when some countries committed to take action on threatened species and habitats in the wake of an international Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), with the UK signing at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992.

There is a European framework for species and habitat conservation, UK – wide and Scottish protection / conservation legislation and also a Scottish set of priorities responding to the UN CBD ‘Aichi’ biodiversity targets for 2020 (named for the area in Japan where the targets were set during the 2010 Convention on Biological Diversity – UN CBD). The ‘Aichi’ targets are short and easy to read: see this webpage  for the list of 2o established in 2010.  All of the planning around BAPs recognises the positive impact on economies and on wellbeing of conserving our natural capital for the future. Naturally, though, there is concern in some less developed countries about the worldwide importance placed on biodiversity, perhaps, as it might be seen,  above food and industrial development.  

In Scottish terms, earlier documents on biodiversity gave rise to the so-called ‘biodiversity duty’, a legal duty on public bodies (e.g. local authority, health board); that could be seen as bolstering the efforts set out within the important BAPs.  The recent document 2020 Challenge for Scotland’s Biodiversity (published in 2013) ( find it here),  states that the Aichi targets of UN CBD 2010, and the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2020 (published 2011)  “call for a step change in efforts to halt the loss of biodiversity and to restore the essential services that a healthy natural environment provides”  because previous targets set for 2010 were not met.  A further Scottish Government document, “Scotland’s Biodiversity: A Route Map to 2020”  (available herewas published in June 2015 and describes priority projects to meet the targets within ‘Six Big Steps for Nature’ (e.g. Step 1: Ecosystems Restoration; priority project: restoration of peatlands).  It’s within this context too that we might consider reintroductions of species: after all, restoring the ecosystem and ecosystem services can mean restoring its former members!  Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) has a section on its website about reintroductions: here, including minutes of meetings of the National Species Reintroduction Forum.

** Update: But for how long?  See news from RSPB regarding recent research:  climate change threat to uplands

I found reading around BAPs really interesting  – I only hope my extreme summary is reasonably accurate!  But back to my special John Muir Award area by Loch Lomond: the NP’s other ‘wild challenges‘  are red squirrels; invasive non-native species (INNS); black grouse; and woodland habitat network.   It was nice to think about my own engagements with some of these NP conservation causes: I am a certificated sprayer of INNS, and have spent some volunteer days removing rhodies by the lever and mulch method (does your back in!); this year I’ve been fortunate to see lots of black grouse (without getting up early!), all of them males strutting their stuff/white tails; red squirrel are quite easily seen in local forests; and my ‘Track a Tree’ project as part of my John Muir Award efforts involves getting up close and personal with my oak tree and its surroundings as the seasons pass – our woodland habitat network!  However, one of the things I increasingly think about is what stage in habitat succession we choose to conserve – and why! IMG_2206


I was wondering about the road that lies ahead,

in my mind I heard the wisdom of the master….

“Every leaf seems to speak”   – John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir (1938).   This last couple of weeks I’ve made visits to my special spots on Loch Lomondside (selected for my John Muir Award focusing on the seasons) and found myself again greeting familiar plants; none has answered back, so John Muir probably didn’t mean this literally!  But the leaves do speak in their own way.  They attest to changes in the amount of  daylight they receive and to the changes taking place inside maturing plants as they prepare to set seed, and changes inside trees as they respond to a drop in green surface area from which to synthesise food, that reduction caused by caterpillar damage. At least that’s how it seems to me… it appears that the oaks have experienced Lammas growth. It’s quite exciting to see this after spotting the numbers of busy caterpillars in early June. I don’t know what the science says to that, though. These photos were taken on 21st July.


Spring has definitely given way to something else, but July has been a little disappointing as a summer month!  It’s made me wonder what lies ahead in August. The beautiful woodland along the West Highland Way between Balmaha and Milarrochy Bay is brilliant green with yellow patches – so many of the flowers I’ve seen in bloom are yellow – look how they shine for you.  There’s still the carpet of low growing Common Cow-wheat, and now there’s Honeysuckle and Nipplewort and Slender St John’s-wort and Creeping Yellow-cress.

Ian McCalllum     G62 8HL



Creeping yellow cress Rorippa sylvestrisThe non-yellow plants are pretty in July: purple and pink flowers are out, with Self-heal, Common Spotted-orchid, Hedge Woundwort, Common Knapweed, Yarrow and Tufted Vetch.

self heal


hedge woundwort  Stachys sylvatica

common knapweed



The small band of wildflowers that I recognise is growing by means of trying to learn new ones while retaining  a handle on the ones I think I learned previously!  Using iSpot has been a great help, as people consider  your identifications, offering agreement or not.  Some contributors remind me of important distinguishing features!  I know, though, that I can be a bit blinkered  continuing to be convinced of an ID even when evidence against it is mounting…. and keying out each one is challenging as I don’t always have the vocabulary for that.  Wildflowers and how they change over the weeks has been one of the revelations so far of my JMA efforts, it’s such rich habitat  around the trees of the oak woodland.  I hope these IDs are correct – time will tell. I have no regrets about the focus being a relatively short stretch/small area along the WHW – getting to know it better is brilliant.

My photo points continue to provide amusement for passers-by and some frustration for me!  July has been green, green, green. I remember so vividly being delighted by the spring signs here on 16th April: but each individual plant had grown and greened up hugely by 15th July! And look, two sunny days, though not in a row, of course.



The little island keeps changing too, not least because of the way the water level varies. Vegetation change is prominent when you compare these images from 20th May and 15th July.


FP 5

I’m delighted  to have enough photos of my chosen points to see real differences across the growing season so far.

I took a walk with a friend up the track at Cashel one afternoon.  It always surprises me that it is so calm and quiet up there, we talked for a while about what we saw and what was growing.  The mountain bog environment is represented by cotton grass, bog moss, bog myrtle and bog asphodel, to name some of the easy ones to see.  How close to my Balmaha to Milarrochy Bay area this is, yet it’s such a different habitat.  Both are important though, figuring in plans to protect and retain their biodiversity.

On one of my visits round my photo points, I took along the little video lapse camera (on a stick) and had great fun taking short movies under water in the loch – the waterproof case worked well.  I want to use to show some features of the woodland, to show a walk along the WHW path.  I tried that but found the position of the stick wasn’t quite right that time! The search for the best method of showing little videos on this blog – eight shots of a photo point, say, stitched together – continues and I think I’m getting somewhere, so more on that soon.

Reading recently has taken in Biodiversity Action Plans – BAPs: the international and European agreements that fostered these plans and the identification of priority species, and the steps local authorities have taken to develop and implement their plans.  My John Muir Award  area is  part of  Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park  and the NP BAP for the current period is called Wild Park 2020 – see  More on that later.